In the past “Bioflavonoids” were often referred collectively as vitamin P. Bioflavonoids are a group of naturally occurring plant compounds, which act primarily in nature as plant pigments, metabolic enhancers, chemical messengers within the plant and also fight various plant infections. In humans, they exhibit a host of biological activities, most notably powerful antioxidant properties. More than 5,000 bioflavonoids have been identified as of now. Continue reading
by Gary Pepper, M.D. and Andrew Levine, Pre-Med, Univ of Central Florida
The recently published TODAY study found obesity related type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is more severe as a teen than as an adult, and high risk of developing diabetes could be tied to weight gain at an early age.
Between 2004 and 2009 the “Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Youth Study Group” (TODAY) gathered 700 participants who met the American Diabetes Association’s criteria for this disease. The participants were monitored for between two to six years. TODAY’s goal was to assess treatment options and the clinical progression of obesity related T2DM in youth. The mean age of the 700 participants in the TODAY study was thirteen, the majority being female. Sixty percent of the 700 participants were African American or Hispanic, with the remainder being Caucasian. The mean duration of diabetes for the study’s’ participants was less than seven months. A major worrisome finding from the study is a majority of participants were also discovered to have dyslipidemia, an abnormally high amount of fats (cholesterol, triglycerides) in the blood, as well as high blood pressure (hypertension). Continue reading
As most people trying to lose weight know, boosting your metabolism is critical to success. Metabolism is the system controlling the rate of breakdown of food into the necessary nutrients for proper function of the cells of the body. A slow metabolism will slow down the weight loss process, while having a faster metabolism well increase your body’s weight loss. Thus, you will want to boost metabolism as much as possible within healthy limits. Knowing what foods assist metabolism will be vital in the effort to achieve and maintain a desirable weight.
Carbohydrates are usually easy for the body to digest. Fiber however, is a non-digestible form of carbohydrate. The body usually doesn’t recognize the fact that it is non-digestible, and expends energy in an effort to break it down anyway. This will increase the amount of “passive” calories used up in the digestive effort. Carrots are a double win, being high in fiber and low in calories, a cup of raw carrots containing only 50 calories. According to Kristine Clark, professor and assistant director at Penn State University, because of the small amount of calories going in while a large amount being used up, eating high fiber vegetables such as carrots can result in an increase in metabolism.
Gaining weight after quitting smoking is a common and dreaded experience. Fear of weight gain often discourages people from trying to take the first steps toward giving up the smoking habit. What is the reason for this unwelcome “side-effect”? Perhaps most importantly, smoking raises the heart rate substantially.
While smoking a cigarette, the heart rate increases 10-20 more beats per minute. (This can lead to heart diseases in the future.) This elevated pulse boosts the metabolism because of the energy it takes to keep the body functioning at this high rate. When a smoker quits smoking, the heart rate will return to its normal, natural rate. This will cause a decrease in the metabolism. However, there are several ways to boost your metabolism after smoking cessation to avoid the weight gain that often occurs.
by Gary Pepper, M.D. and Andrew Levine, Pre-med
If you ask the average person to define diabetes, a typical response might be “it’s when you have unhealthy eating habits and an overabundance of sugar in your blood.” Although that is not far from the truth, a more accurate definition is that diabetes is a disorder in the way our body uses insulin to process digested food for energy and storage. A good part of what we eat is broken down into glucose, the principle form of sugar in the blood. Diabetes occurs when there is not enough insulin to push the glucose into our cells. This deprives the body of the energy it needs because glucose is metabolized as fuel by all the organs in the body. Therefore in diabetes despite an elevated amount of sugar in the blood, the cells are actually starving for energy. We sometimes conceive of glucose in the blood as the enemy , but without it we would die. Continue reading
What Is Metabolism?
“I’ve searched the web but found nothing that tells me how to
distinguish if my metabolism is healthy. I’ve found plenty of
ways to tell me how to improve my metabolism but nothing
that explains what is normal. Are there outward signs that
will tell you if your metabolism is healthy?”
According to Webster’s Dictionary, metabolism is “the chemical and physical processes continuously going on in living organisms.” But when most people think about metabolism they focus on one specific process—the process that releases and stores energy from the food we eat. This is because this type of metabolism not only affects how efficiently your body burns fuel but also influences how easily our bodies gain or lose weight.
Turning Food into Energy
In simple terms, your metabolism is the rate at which your body breaks down nutrients from the foods you eat and converts them into a form the body can use. After you’ve eaten a bowl of cereal or a sandwich, chemicals produced in the digestive tract, known as enzymes, break down all of the complex molecules that make up the food into smaller, more usable nutrients. Proteins are broken down into amino acids, fats into fatty acids, and carbohydrates into simple sugars like glucose. These nutrients are then absorbed into the blood where they are transported all over the body.
At this point the nutrients can be used in different processes. Amino acids are usually used to build and repair tissues, while glucose enters cells and is metabolized for energy. Any extra nutrients left over after these processes are generally stored in body tissues, especially the liver, muscles and body fat, and used for energy at a later date if the body needs it. (Think of it like a squirrel stocking up nuts for the winter.)
In this way, the process of metabolism really is a balancing act between two very different types of activities: (1) building up body tissues and energy stores, and (2) breaking down energy-rich nutrients, body tissues and energy stores to produce fuel that will power the body. Continue reading
Layla inquires about how to approach this common situation in the treatment of hypothyroidism:
Hello, I am a 23-year-old girl, and at the beginning of 2013 I started rapidly putting on weight, where I ballooned from 128 lbs to 155 within a few months, despite extremely healthy eating and exercise. I had my TSH tested and it was 4.71. I was put on 25 mcg of levothyroxine, which was eventually increased to 50 mcg (I am still currently taking this). It decreased my TSH to 0.69 and increased my free T4 t0 1.2, but recently my weight loss has slowed and I put on a little fat despite an extremely low carb diet. I retested and it showed that my TSH had gone up to 2.1, and my free T4 had gone down to 1.0. My endo was not tested T3, but she finally gave in when I asked, though she refused to test free T3. My total T3 came in at 40 (range 50 – 180, though I’ve seen 80 as the lowest amount for health), which is extremely low. I have always had incredibly slow metabolism, and even when I was at 128 lbs, I had a lot of body fat. I keep asking for Cytomel, and the endo is almost there in giving it to me, but she insists that my low T3 is due to some mystery illness that she thinks is temporary, and wants me to retest. My question is this: how much T3 should I end up taking, to get rid of my excess weight and body/belly fat, and improve my symptoms (dizziness, extreme fatigue, depression, PCOS)? I want to be around 115 – 120 lbs. I figure the starting dose will be around 5 mcg, but do I need more than this for optimal functioning and metabolism? Should I split the dose? Any advice is appreciated.
I am often asked by patients with hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormone levels), “What is the right thyroid hormone dose for me”. Of course, a physician wants to find the appropriate dose of medication to treat each condition a patient has. When it comes to thyroid disease however, this can be a complex question. Not only is there an issue of whether T4 alone or combination T3 and T4 will be required to treat a particular individual but the therapeutic window of these hormones must also be considered. Continue reading
Our member, Ella, has analyzed her own T4 plus T3 thyroid replacement needs and offers a terrific explanation of how she arrived at her conclusions. Follow her thinking in her message to metabolism.com